The pentagr. Group

iCsquared GmbH operates under The pentagr. Group – a Swiss-Slovenian-Azerbaijani transnational integrated conglomerate.

The pentagr. Group members are: 1. Caspian Service International Construction, Development and Investment Group of Companies (Azerbaijan), 2. iCsquared GmbH (Switzerland), 3. NSN Trading Company Ltd. (Azerbaijan), 4. SAnattura Import-Export Trading Company Ltd. / SANATTURA Organics™ (Azerbaijan), 5. TRGO-MOKK d.o.o. (Slovenia), 6. Industrial Goods Ltd. (Azerbaijan), 7. MARS-FK Ltd. MMM (Azerbaijan)

Swiss Red

The shade of red used in the Swiss flag is not defined by law. Swiss government bodies have used various shades throughout history.

In 2007, the Federal Chancellery published a corporate design guide for the federal administration. That guide prescribed Pantone's CMYK value of PMS 485 (both magenta and yellow at 100 percent) for use in print, and a hexadecimal RGB color value of #FF0000 (red at 100 percent, no green or blue) for online use. However, the red color used in the heraldry corresponds to Pantone Red 032 C, which is transposed into RGB as the hexadecimal value #F00000.


White is an achromatic color, a color without hue. An incoming light to the human eye that stimulates all its three types of color sensitive cone cells in nearly equal amounts results in white. White is one of the most common colors in nature, the color of sunlight, snow, milk, chalk, limestone and other common minerals. In many cultures white represents or signifies purity, innocence, and light, and is the symbolic opposite of black, or darkness.


Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of light. Like white and grey, it is an achromatic color, literally a color without hue. It is one of the four primary colors in the CMYK color model, along with cyan, yellow, and magenta, used in color printing to produce all the other colors. Black is often used to represent darkness; it is the symbolic opposite of white.


Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910’s and extending through the 1920’s.

The movement was pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Andre Lhote, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne.


Minimalism began in post-World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960’s and early 1970’s. Prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, and Frank Stella. It derives from the reductive aspects of Modernism and is often interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism and a bridge to post-minimal art practices.

The word was first used in English in the early 20th century to describe "a 1913 composition by the Russian painter Kazimir Malevich of a black square on a white ground".